A Wonderful, Thorough Review of The Ananda Apothecary!

Marvy MomsAfter frequent discussions with our owner, and sampling a range of our essential oils, this is an independent review of The Ananda Apothecary by Emily Carpenter at www.marvymoms.com

And Here’s The Review: Emily and our owner since June 30th. We’ve talked about his company, the hot topic of ingestion of essential oils, and the healing power of frankincense essential oil. First let’s start off with the company profile and Q&A:

The Ananda Apothecary

Owned by: Eric Čech   Location: Boulder, CO

Number of Essential Oils: 120 (see All Essential Oils)

Other Products Sold: Essential Oil Blends, Diffusers, Nebulizers, Carrier Oils (25 varieties), Massage Oils, Mixing Bottles, Storage Bottles, Measuring Pipettes, “Tween” Emulsifier, Aromatherapy Books, Carrying Cases, and more (including free Super Immune with orders over $79).

Oils Received:

What’s on each bottle:

  • Oil name
  • Botanical name
  • Country of origin
  • Plant part
  • Volume (number of ml)
  • Boulder Colorado (Where Ananda is located)
  • Website address
  • “Pure essential oil”
  • “Therapeutic Grade 100% Pure Essential Oil”
  • “Keep Out of Reach of Children. If Pregnant or under a Doctor’s Care Consult Your Physician.”

What’s in the bottle:

The Rose Otto is gorgeous and such a wonderful addition to my collection. Helichrysum italicum is another one that is quite pricey, and worth EVERY penny. I’m planning to use this in some rosehip oil to treat scars. I’ve used helichrysum hydrosol in a blend to help with bruising, so I’m guessing the oil would be good for this too.

Is Ananda dedicated to supplying essential oils to the aromatherapy practitioner market and educated public?

“We ARE definitely dedicated to supplying essential oils to the practitioner market. We see SO many companies selling oils that are either just ‘cheap’ (too cheap to be of the best quality), or SO cheap, there is no way they can not be synthetic”

Is Ananda on the small size and not a large corporation?

“We are small in size, not a corporation, which allows close watch on the quality of our oils, and dedicated, knowledgeable customer service, from staff who knows about the products and how they are used.”

Is Ananda owned by an aromatherapy practitioner or essential oil specialist?

“Owned by ME, an aromatherapy practitioner myself. I write all the blog posts, and actually wrote every word on the website. If you scour it, you’ll see there’s a lot of knowledge put into each page. I research the science behind many oils, and post whenever I can (there is SO much data on Frankincense destroying cancer cells…in every cell line ever tested, leaving healthy cells unaffected…for example).”

Do you have relations with your distillers?

“Yes, relations with our distillers. This is extremely important to us, and finding the very best oil of every single variety we sell has been my objective for our 10 years in business.”

(Clay’s answer: “Yes, we definitely have relationships with our distillers. We want responsibly resourced or organic oils for sure. We work with the distillers. The world market for essential oils is a little bit funny because they make the whole supply in the beginning of the season. We have distillers that we’ve been working with for a long time, but if one of the distillers has a batch that isn’t up to par we will find a different source.”

Can Ananda readily supply a batch-specific GC/MS spec report on each essential oil it sells?

“GC/MS and MSDS’s are available for all our oils. CofA’s are often sent to customers upon request.”

Is Ananda readily able to provide material safety data sheets (MSDS) as needed?

“GC/MS and MSDS’s are available for all our oils CofA’s are often sent to customers upon request.”

Does Ananda and do you have a strong unquestioned noncontroversial reputation in the field?

“Our customers are repeat customers, and many order very large amounts from us for their practice, be it naturopathy, massage or other healing with essential oils.”

Have you been in the field for a number of years and are you well known to other aromatherapy practitioners and/or educators?

“And again, we’ve been in the field for 10 years, and again have many customers who use our oils in their practice, because they know they can consistently get the very best essential oil of every variety from us. For example, Helichrysum is an especially therapeutic oil – we get ours direct from the distiller in Corsica, the island which produces what is thought to be the world’s finest. It’s very impressive in its actions (put a little directly on a sore spot, tight muscle or tendon injury, and you can feel the pain relief almost immediately. I use more of this oil myself than any other, as a sports fanatic who is getting up there in age…relatively since I used to race professionally.”

What is different about Ananda?

We’re NOT an MLM, so we don’t charge mlm prices. The oils come from the distillers, are bottled by us, then sent to our customers (both doTerra and YL customers have noted our oils at least as good, if not better than what they’ve received from these companies). So essentially one is getting wholesale from us.

My Impressions of The Ananda Apothecary

As I mentioned before, Eric Čech and I have had a long email conversation about several topics. I asked him specifically about ingestion of essential oils since at the time he had recently published a blog post on this topic. I was concerned that while his article did recommend consulting a qualified aromatherapist/health professional before ingesting, he also indicated that certain oils were safe for ingestion on a regular basis. After much discussion he retracted his article since he realized it didn’t get across his real message of: “Don’t ingest without the guidance of a qualified health professional – should you think a protocol of ingestion of essential oils can help you, particularly with a dire health condition – we highly encourage you to seek out such a health professional.”

The fact that he willingly retracted his article and “plan(s) on a follow up article for clarification at some point” speaks volumes to me of Ananda’s commitment to education and safe use of essential oils. I think his point was that there are times when ingestion is warranted, however, don’t try to do it without guidance from someone who is qualified and has experience in ingestion.

To this point I agree. There are people that say “Never ingest!” and others that say “Ingest everything!” Neither are right. The problem is that there are not a lot of people qualified in safely ingesting essential oils. Thankfully, there are enough benefits to inhaling or applying diluted essential oils topically, that ingestion is rarely necessary.

In the aromatherapy world, there is a general dislike of the term “therapeutic grade” essential oils. It implies that there is a grading system with an oversight organization designating guidelines. The fact is: there is no such organization, and no such guidelines. “Therapeutic grade” is a made-up term to indicate that oils are intended for aromatherapy purposes. Ananda uses this term, as do many, many other essential oil companies.

To quote the Ananda website:

“Simply put, ‘therapeutic grade’ means that an essential oil has been carefully distilled to retain the maximum amount of constituents that have therapeutic effects. There is no ‘official’ meaning of ‘therapeutic grade’, as there is no agency that oversees the quality of essential oils in the United States. However, ‘therapeutic grade’ is recognized as a standard that should be upheld by the essential oil industry to ensure you get the maximum benefits possible from the oils you purchase. We believe this is of the utmost importance in selecting which oils to offer at Ananda.”

So, they are aware that there is no governing agency, and make no claim that there is. They are simply showing that they take great care in selecting their oils.

Overall, I get a good feeling from Ananda Apothecary. They have a nice selection of single oils, blends, and other aromatherapy products. Owner, Eric Čech, is open to feedback and committed to educating customers. Not to mention, he sent me such an amazing selection of oils! As with many of the companies I’ve interviewed, Ananda was glad to send me oils to be a part of my mission of helping people to discover choices when selecting where to buy their essential oils.

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This Week: Super Immune Free with Your Next Order, Plus A Review of Anti-Viral Essential Oil Research

Super Immune (12ml, normally $28.75, free with every order over $79) was created using essential oils researched for their anti-viral properties, as well as those noted by Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt for this activity. We’ve had many positive customer responses from this blend, and use it regularly ourselves as the colder months arrive.*

Simply type ‘Super Immune’ in the comments box of the checkout page, and we’ll include it with your order here! See our Sales and Specials page for many wonderful oils on sale as well.

Research of the Anti-Viral Activity of Essential Oils

In published research (referenced below) essential oils from many plant families have demonstrated antiviral properties. Interestingly, different plant families exhibit varying degrees of effectiveness depending on the virus strain.

This is due to the particular molecular structures found in each type of essential oil, which penetrate different tissues, cell walls, mucous membranes, etc, to varying degrees. The effect of the oil on a virus strain depends also on the virus structure (enveloped, non-enveloped, molecular symmetry, etc).

bay laurel essential oil

Bay Laurel essential oil is known for its exceptionally-complex chemistry.

Certainly, one of the reasons for oils’ effectiveness is their lipophillic character – essential oils are easily absorbed into mammalian tissues. In fact, when studying the anti-viral effects of essential oils, researchers found that normal cells seemed to acquire a special resistance to viral penetration, though the mechanism for this effect is not yet known.

The Development of the Super Immune Blend

With this in mind, we’ve developed the Super Immune blend, with a complex combination of essential oils with a diverse spectrum of molecular constituents. We’ve included Bay Laurel, Melissa, Roslina (“children’s Tea Tree”), Benchmark Thyme (for its combination of constituents of both Thyme and Tea Tree oils – containing higher amounts of terpinen-4-0l than Tea Tree itself), Eucalyptus Radiata, and two types of Pines (noted by Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt for their potential antiviral properties).

Using Super Immune

Thyme herb

'Benchmark' Thyme essential oil is a very potent antimicrobial blend of four strains of Thyme herb.

The blend works wonderfully in any of our Nebulizing Diffusers (from which we’ll inhale the mist directly occasionally to really saturate our respiratory system), applied topically to lymph nodes (we use this ‘neat’ or undiluted, yet you should decide for yourself whether your skin may be sensitive such that you may wish to use a carrier oil) or massaged into the lymph/respiratory meridians on the feet: the top and bottom of foot at the base of the toes (balls of the toes, and the tops of the feet in the same region).

We’ve found that when someone in our home or work area is coming down with something, and we consistently diffuse the blend, no one else will ‘catch’ the illness.

Essential Oils and Enveloped Viruses (such as Influenza/Flu)

According to Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt in Advanced Aromatherapy  Enveloped viruses (such as flu/influenza viruses) are most sensitive to essential oils with a high amount of monoterpene alcohols (e.g. Linalool, present in Lavender,  alpha-terpinol found in Eucalyptus Radiata, and Ravensara; Terpinen-4-ol present in Tea Tree and even more so in  Benchmark Thyme, Hyssop and Marjoramand monoterpine phenols (e.g. Thymol in Benchmark Thyme and Oregano). Again, inluenza (Flu) viruses are Enveloped viruses.

Kurt Schnaubelt also notes Bay Laurel essential oil for its potential antiviral properties in ‘The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils’. Bay Laurel is one of the most chemically-complex essential oils available, containing seven of the nine molecular forms found in all essential oils. In fact, it was noted in research as particularly effective against the SARS CoV virus.

Selected Research Abstracts (for more, visit www.pubmed.gov)

1. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species. Chem Biodivers. 2008 Mar;5(3):461-70. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.200890045.

Loizzo MR1, Saab AM, Tundis R, Statti GA, Menichini F, Lampronti I, Gambari R, Cinatl J, Doerr HW.

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Laurus nobilis (Bay Laurel), Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Thuja orientalis, Cupressus sempervirens ssp. pyramidalis, Pistacia palaestina, Salvia officinalis, and Satureja thymbra was determined by GC/MS analysis. Essential oils have been evaluated for their inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV and HSV-1 replication in vitro by visually scoring of the virus-induced cytopathogenic effect post-infection. L. nobilis oil exerted an interesting activity against SARS-CoV with an IC(50) value of 120 microg/ml and a selectivity index (SI) of 4.16. This oil was characterized by the presence of beta-ocimene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene as the main constituents. J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus oil, in which alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene were the major constituents, revealed antiviral activity against HSV-1 with an IC(50) value of 200 microg/ml and a SI of 5.

2. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses. Phytomedicine. 2008 Sep;15(9):734-40. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.04.018.

Schnitzler P1, Schuhmacher A, Astani A, Reichling J.

Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.

3. Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (essential oil) inhibits in vitro entry of influenza virus into host cells. Molecules. 2013 Aug 9;18(8):9550-66. doi: 10.3390/molecules18089550.

Li X1, Duan S, Chu C, Xu J, Zeng G, Lam AK, Zhou J, Yin Y, Fang D, Reynolds MJ, Gu H, Jiang L. Influenza virus causes high morbidity among the infected population annually and occasionally the spread of pandemics. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate (MAC) is an essential oil derived from a native Australian tea tree. Our aim was to investigate whether MAC has any in vitro inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection and what mechanism does the MAC use to fight the virus infection. In this study, the antiviral activity of MAC was examined by its inhibition of cytopathic effects. In silico prediction was performed to evaluate the interaction between MAC and the viral haemagglutinin. We found that when the influenza virus was incubated with 0.010% MAC for one hour, no cytopathic effect on MDCK cells was found after the virus infection and no immunofluorescence signal was detected in the host cells. Electron microscopy showed that the virus treated with MAC retained its structural integrity. By computational simulations, we found that terpinen-4-ol, which is the major bioactive component of MAC, could combine with the membrane fusion site of haemagglutinin. Thus, we proved that MAC could prevent influenza virus from entering the host cells by disturbing the normal viral membrane fusion procedure.

4. Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture. Pharmazie. 2001 Apr;56(4):343-7.Schnitzler P1, Schön K, Reichling J.

The antiviral effect of Australian tea tree oil (TTO) and eucalyptus oil (EUO) against herpes simplex virus was examined. Cytotoxicity of TTO and EUO was evaluated in a standard neutral red dye uptake assay. Toxicity of TTO and EUO was moderate for RC-37 cells and approached 50% (TC50) at concentrations of 0.006% and 0.03%, respectively. Antiviral activity of TTO and EUO against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of TTO for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was 0.0009% and 0.0008% and the IC50 of EUO was determined at 0.009% and 0.008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Australian tea tree oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of TTO plaque formation was reduced by 98.2% and 93.0% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of EUO reduced virus titers by 57.9% for HSV-1 and 75.4% for HSV-2. Virus titers were reduced significantly with TTO, whereas EUO exhibited distinct but less antiviral activity. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of both essential oils, either cells were pretreated before viral infection or viruses were incubated with TTO or EUO before infection, during adsorption or after penetration into the host cells. Plaque formation was clearly reduced, when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oils prior to adsorption. These results indicate that TTO and EUO affect the virus before or during adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus TTO and EUO are capable to exert a direct antiviral effect on HSV. Although the active antiherpes components of Australian tea tree and eucalyptus oil are not yet known, their possible application as antiviral agents in recurrent herpes infection is promising.

PLEASE NOTE: In no cases should self-treatment with essential oils be used in place of professional medical care where signs/symptoms of infectious illness are present.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. These products are not intended to treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Frankincense Oil & Breast Cancer Research and More: Amazing Discoveries

Frankincense Tears

Frankincense Tears, the Dried Sap of Boswellia Trees, is Distilled into Frankincense Essential Oil.

Frankincense has been the most widely studied essential oil for the potential treatment of many types of cancer in the laboratory. And all Frankincense oils noted in the research is on sale, 20% off!

In every study thus published, Frankincense oil has caused cancerous cells to undergo aptosis (natural cell death) and left healthy cells unaffected.*

To learn more about each of our Frankincense varieties, see our blog post Frankincense Sacra, Carteri or Seratta: The Science and the Scents.

Frankincense Tree

A Boswellia Sacra tree, source of Sacred Frankincense from Oman. The Boswellia trees are unharmed in the process of harvesting the dried sap, called Frankincense 'tears'.

Frankincense has been the subject of research in a number of cancer cell lines, including those of breast1,2,3 bladder4, brain3, and more.

In research, Frankincense essential oil has been evaluated in these studies. One important conclusion is that “Frankincense appears to distinguish between normal cells and suppress cancer cell viability”.

To learn more about each of our distillations, sources and aromas, see ‘Frankincense: The Science and the Scents‘ on our blog.

Below are just a few of the research papers regarding Frankincense and cancer. Many more can be found on www.pubmed.gov.

1. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014 Spring;13(2):719-24. 
Boswellia has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases such as cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gum extract of Boswellia on the viability and P53 gene expression of cultured breast cancer cells. The gum extract was obtained in various concentrations using the maceration method. Normal (HEK-293) and cancer (MDA-MB-231) human cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of the extract. Then MTT assay was used for the study of cytotoxic effect of the extract and real time PCR method was also applied for the investigation of P53 gene expression in cancer cells. The IC50 of the extract against cancer cells was 80 µg/mL and had less cytotoxic effect in normal cells. The effect of the extract was dose dependent. Induction of P53 expression by extract was also significantly more in treated cancer cells than untreated cells. This inductive effect in cells was higher after 12 h treatment than it was after 6 h. The results of the current study show that gum extract of Boswellia has probably anti-cancer effects and could induce P53 gene transcription and toxicity in the cultured breast cancer cell line. The increase of P53 gene specific mRNA may be a mechanism of gum extract induced cytotoxicity. However, for a definitive conclusion, further studies on other cell lines as well as animal models and subsequent clinical studies are warranted.

2. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Dec 15;11:129. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-129. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells.

Suhail MM1, Wu W, Cao A, Mondalek FG, Fung KM, Shih PT, Fang YT, Woolley C, Young G, Lin HK.

BACKGROUND:Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp.) are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells.

METHODS: Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 °C for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231) and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A). Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation.

RESULTS: More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 °C hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil treatment. Boswellia sacra essential oil hydrodistilled at 100 °C was more potent than the essential oil prepared at 78 °C in inducing cancer cell death, preventing the cellular network formation (MDA-MB-231) cells on Matrigel, causing the breakdown of multicellular tumor spheroids (T47D cells), and regulating molecules involved in apoptosis, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression.

CONCLUSIONS: Similar to our previous observations in human bladder cancer cells, Boswellia sacra essential oil induces breast cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity. Suppression of cellular network formation and disruption of spheroid development of breast cancer cells by Boswellia sacra essential oil suggest that the essential oil may be effective for advanced breast cancer. Consistently, the essential oil represses signaling pathways and cell cycle regulators that have been proposed as therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are urgently needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Boswellia sacra essential oil as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer.

3. J Neurooncol. 2007 Mar;82(1):91-3. Epub 2006 Sep 26. A lipoxygenase inhibitor (Boswellia seratta) in breast cancer brain metastases. Flavin DF.

The complication of multiple brain metastases in breast cancer patients is a life threatening condition with limited success following standard therapies. The arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway appears to play a role in brain tumor growth as well as inhibition of apoptosis in in-vitro studies. The down regulation of these arachidonate lipoxygenase growth stimulating products therefore appeared to be a worthwhile consideration for testing in brain metastases not responding to standard therapy. Boswellia serrata, a lipoxygenase inhibitor was applied for this inhibition. Multiple brain metastases were successfully reversed using this method in a breast cancer patient who had not shown improvement after standard therapy. The results suggest a potential new area of therapy for breast cancer patients with brain metastases that may be useful as an adjuvant to our standard therapy.

4. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 18;9:6. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-6. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity. Frank MB1, Yang Q, Osban J, Azzarello JT, Saban MR, Saban R, Ashley RA, Welter JC, Fung KM, Lin HK.

BACKGROUND: Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells.

METHODS: Frankincense oil-induced cell viability was investigated in human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal bladder urothelial UROtsa cells. Temporal regulation of frankincense oil-activated gene expression in bladder cancer cells was identified by microarray and bioinformatics analysis.

RESULTS:Within a range of concentration, frankincense oil suppressed cell viability in bladder transitional carcinoma J82 cells but not in UROtsa cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that frankincense oil activates genes that are responsible for cell cycle arrest, cell growth suppression, and apoptosis in J82 cells. However, frankincense oil-induced cell death in J82 cells did not result in DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis.

CONCLUSION:Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.


* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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